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ECHI indicatorsHealth status

Self-perceived health

Self-perceived health, 2015

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CountriesSelf-perceived health (very good or good): Total [Percentage]Self-perceived health (very good or good): Men [Percentage]Self-perceived health (very good or good): Women [Percentage]
Austria69.971.968
Belgium74.677.971.5
Bulgaria65.669.561.9
Croatia58.26155.8
Cyprus80.381.479.2
Czech Republic61.363.559.7
Denmark71.572.970.1
Estonia51.553.450.1
EU2866.969.564.5
Finland69.970.269.6
France6870.465.7
Germany64.66663.2
Greece74.176.871.5
Hungary56.459.753.6
Ireland82.683.381.9
Italy65.86962.7
Latvia46.351.342.2
Lithuania42.849.538.5
Luxembourg70.672.568.7
Malta7171.870.2
NETHERLANDS76.280.172.6
Poland57.961.554.9
Portugal46.551.542.1
Romania7074.965.3
Slovakia6669.862.4
Slovenia64.86861.7
Spain72.675.569.8
Sweden79.682.177.1
United Kingdom69.669.569.7

33. Self-perceived health


Definition

Proportion of persons who assess their health to be (very) good.

Rationale

Subjective health measurement is contributing to the evaluation of health problems, the burden of diseases and health needs at the population level. Perceived health status is not a substitute for more objective indicators but rather complements these measures. Studies have shown perceived health to be a good predictor of subsequent mortality.

Relevant policy areas

  • Healthy ageing, ageing population               
  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Mental health
  • (Planning of) health care resources

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Self-reported chronic morbidity

Self-reported chronic morbidity, 2015

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CountriesSelf-reported chronic morbidity: Total [Percentage]Self-reported chronic morbidity: Men [Percentage]Self-reported chronic morbidity: Women [Percentage]
Austria34.833.735.7
Belgium24.522.426.5
Bulgaria21.419.123.6
Croatia3431.336.5
Cyprus32.532.132.8
Czech Republic34.131.336.2
Denmark29.626.932.3
Estonia46.142.749
EU2834.132.135.9
Finland46.643.350
France37.335.938.7
Germany42.541.543.4
Greece242225.8
Hungary39.235.842.2
Ireland26.62627.2
Italy24.822.526.9
Latvia41.235.745.5
Lithuania34.530.238.1
Luxembourg23.12125.2
Malta2928.529.5
NETHERLANDS35.433.337.3
Poland35.732.538.4
Portugal42.738.646.2
Romania20.216.223.9
Slovakia30.326.733.7
Slovenia33.130.435.6
Spain32.831.134.3
Sweden34.431.137.6
United Kingdom35.23436.4

34. Self-reported chronic morbidity


Definition

Proportion of people reporting that they have any long-standing chronic illness or long-standing health problem.

Rationale

Widely used measure of general health, contributing to the evaluation of health problems, the burden of diseases and health needs at the population level. 

Relevant policy areas

  • Healthy ageing, ageing population               
  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Mental health
  • (Planning of) health care resources

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Long-term activity limitations

Long-term activity limitations 2015

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CountriesLong-term activity limitations (some or severe): Total [Percentage]Long-term activity limitations (some or severe): Men [Percentage]Long-term activity limitations (some or severe): Women [Percentage]
Austria33.131.135
Belgium23.62126
Bulgaria19.317.121.3
Croatia35.132.437.6
Cyprus20.820.221.4
Czech Republic24.923.126.2
Denmark30.52734
Estonia3531.238.2
EU2825.222.927.4
Finland33.328.537.9
France25.223.526.7
Germany21.220.621.7
Greece24.822.427.1
Hungary27.724.730.4
Ireland17.516.718.4
Italy2926.231.6
Latvia38.533.642.3
Lithuania30.726.833.8
Luxembourg25.621.929.2
Malta9.78.810.6
NETHERLANDS30.726.334.8
Poland24.422.326.2
Portugal36.130.640.9
Romania26.121.630.4
Slovakia31.527.835
Slovenia31.528.134.8
Spain24.822.127.4
Sweden10.98.313.6
United Kingdom23.421.525.2

35. Long-term activity limitations


Definition

Proportion of people reporting that they have long-term restrictions in daily activities.

Rationale

Widely used measure of general health, contributing to the evaluation of health problems, the burden of diseases and health needs at the population level. 

Relevant policy areas

  • Healthy ageing, ageing population               
  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • (Planning of) health care resources

More information

Physical and sensory functional limitations

Physical and sensory functional limitations 2008

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CountriesPhysical and sensory functional limitations: Total [Percentage]Physical and sensory functional limitations: Men [Percentage]Physical and sensory functional limitations: Women [Percentage]
Belgium38.33442.3
Bulgaria37.93342.1
Cyprus24.121.126.8
Czech Republic30.325.135.2
France36.833.240.1
Greece35.329.540.9
Hungary40.835.445.5
Latvia46.739.452.6
Malta36.93439.6
Romania4035.244.5
Slovakia37.733.242
Slovenia43.640.846.4
Spain33.327.838.6

36. Physical and sensory functional limitations


Definition

The percentage of people who declare having physical and sensory functional limitations (concerning seeing, hearing, mobility, speaking, biting/chewing, and agility).

Rationale

Western societies are confronted with a growing life expectancy. This rise in life expectancy is linked with a growing number of people with limitations and functional incapacities. Assessing functioning is particularly important in the elderly, as the prevalence of functional disability increases with age. Growing interest is emerging in different aspects of functioning, as adequate physical function plays a prominent role in maintaining independence of older adults and in the ability of people to participate and contribute to society. Declining physical functioning associated with increasing age and chronic diseases, contributes to the need of assistance in performing basic tasks and to increased rates of institutionalization. 

Relevant policy areas

  • Healthy ageing, ageing population               
  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • (Planning of) health care resources

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General musculoskeletal pain

This section contains those indicator topics that are not ready yet for incorporation in international regular data collections (and thus for implementation) due to considerable methodological and/or data availability problems.

37. General musculoskeletal pain


​Definition

Prevalence of general musculoskeletal pain, measured by means of health interview survey using representative population sample.

Rationale

High-burden health problem. Musculoskeletal conditions (MSC) are a heterogeneous group of well-defined diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, as well as more unspecific conditions like chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain and low back pain. The conditions are rarely life threatening, but the major cause of sickness absence and disability pension. Prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of persons with MSC are often insufficient.

Relevant policy areas

  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)

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Psychological distress

This section contains those indicator topics that are not ready yet for incorporation in international regular data collections (and thus for implementation) due to considerable methodological and/or data availability problems.

38. Psychological distress


Definition

To be developed, e.g. occurrence and extent of psychological distress during past month. 

Rationale

Psychological distress is associated with high use of health services and decreased level of functioning. It is also predictor of mortality. Promotion and prevention activities may decrease the level of psychological distress.

Relevant policy areas

  • Healthy ageing, ageing population
  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Mental health
  • (Planning of) health care resources

More information

Psychological well-being

This section contains those indicator topics that are not ready yet for incorporation in international regular data collections (and thus for implementation) due to considerable methodological and/or data availability problems.

39. Psychological well-being


Definition

To be developed, e.g. occurrence and extent of psychological well-being during past month. 

Rationale

Psychological well-being is an important indicator of positive mental health and thus one of the core indicators to cover the mental health issue. Psychological well-being is linked to better general and mental health. Promotion and prevention activities may increase the level of well-being..

Relevant policy areas

  • Healthy ageing, ageing population
  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • Mental health

More information