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ECHI indicatorsHealth determinants

Social support

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54. Social support


Definition

Proportion of individuals reporting that they have none or 1 person that they can count on if they have serious personal problems.

Rationale

Social support is a protective factor in times of stress. A low level of social support is associated with ill-health (both e.g. depression and somatic diseases). It is important for public health policy to collect information on social support to enable both risk assessment and the planning of preventive interventions.

Relevant policy areas

  • Sustainable health care systems54. Social support
  • Health system performance, quality of care, efficiency of care, patient safety
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Life style, health behaviour
  • Mental health

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PM10 (particulate matter) exposure

PM10 (particulate matter) exposure

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CountriesParticulates PM10: [µg/m3]
Austria20.9
Belgium21.7
Bulgaria41.2
Cyprus32.4
Czech Republic27.7
Denmark19.5
Estonia15.3
EU2822.5
Finland13.7
France18.2
Germany20.3
Greece25.8
Hungary28.2
Ireland14.3
Italy26.8
Latvia23.7
Lithuania23.4
Luxembourg20.7
NETHERLANDS21.2
Poland35.2
Portugal20
Romania25
Slovakia27.9
Slovenia22.5
Spain20.7
Sweden14.3
United Kingdom17.7

55. PM10 (particulate matter) exposure


Definition

Annual urban population average exposure to outdoor air pollution by particulate matter (PM10).

Rationale

Urban air pollution is responsible for substantial burden of disease and death. Very young children, probably including unborn babies, are particularly sensitive to air pollutants. Fine particulates (PM10) can be carried deep into the lungs where they can cause inflammation and a worsening of the condition of people with heart and lung diseases. The data in the indicator relate to the target and limit values as set in EC legislation.

Relevant policy areas

  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Environmental  health
  • Child health (including young adults)
  • Health in All Policies (HiAP)

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