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ECHI indicatorsHealth status

Life expectancy

Life expectancy 2015

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CountriesLife expectancy at birth: Total [Year]Life expectancy at birth: Men [Year]Life expectancy at birth: Women [Year]Life expectancy at 65: Total [Year]Life expectancy at 65: Men [Year]Life expectancy at 65: Women [Year]
Austria81.378.883.719.818.121.3
Belgium81.178.783.42018.221.5
Bulgaria74.771.278.2161417.6
Croatia77.574.480.517.115.218.7
Cyprus81.879.983.719.618.420.8
Czech Republic78.775.781.617.815.919.4
Denmark80.878.882.719.41820.7
Estonia7873.282.218.615.520.7
EU2880.677.983.319.717.921.2
Finland81.678.784.420.218.321.9
France82.479.285.521.619.423.5
Germany80.778.383.119.517.921
Greece81.178.583.719.918.521.3
Hungary75.772.37916.614.518.2
Ireland81.579.683.419.818.421
Italy82.780.384.920.618.922.2
Latvia74.869.779.51714.218.9
Lithuania74.669.279.717.114.119.2
Luxembourg82.48084.720.518.921.8
Malta81.979.78420.318.721.6
NETHERLANDS81.679.983.219.818.421.1
Poland77.573.581.618.215.720.1
Portugal81.378.184.3201821.7
Romania7571.578.716.414.518
Slovakia76.773.180.217.21518.8
Slovenia80.977.883.919.717.621.4
Spain8380.185.721.11923
Sweden82.280.484.120.218.921.5
United Kingdom8179.282.819.818.620.8

10. Life expectancy
 

Definition

Life expectancy at a given age represents the average number of years of life remaining if a group of persons at that age were to experience the mortality rates for a particular year over the course of their remaining life. Life expectancy at birth is a summary measure of the age-specific all cause mortality rates in an area in a given period.

Rationale

Basic indicator for population health. It reflectsthe cumulative effect of the impact of risk factors, occurrence and severity of disease, and the effectiveness of interventions and treatment.

Relevant policy areas

  • Sustainable health care systems
  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)

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Infant mortality

Infant mortality 2015

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CountriesInfant mortality rate: Total [Per 1,000 live births]
Austria3.1
Belgium3.3
Bulgaria6.6
Croatia4.1
Cyprus2.7
Czech Republic2.5
Denmark3.7
Estonia2.5
EU283.6
Finland1.7
France3.7
Germany3.3
Greece4
Hungary4.2
Ireland3.4
Italy2.9
Latvia4.1
Lithuania4.2
Luxembourg2.8
Malta5.8
NETHERLANDS3.3
Poland4
Portugal2.9
Romania7.6
Slovakia5.1
Slovenia1.6
Spain2.7
Sweden2.5
United Kingdom3.9

11. Infant mortality


Definition

The number of deaths of infants (younger than one year of age at death) per 1000 live births (based on one year data).

Rationale

“Basic indicator for population health and quality of health care services, infant mortality is highly correlated to countries’ level of development. An important part of the infant mortality rate measures the consequences of perinatal events (low birth weight, prematurity) or birth defects. Moreover, infant mortality comprises the deaths in the post-neonatal period; those include accidents and infections, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and lack of the essentials of life (adequate food, water, maternal care). Those post-neonatal deaths are often preventable and are highly influenced by social factors. This indicator can thus serve as a measure of the quality of medical care, preventive services and health promotioninterventions” (PERISTAT project).

Relevant policy areas

  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • Health system performance, quality of care, efficiency of care, patient safety
  • Maternal and perinatal health
  • Child health (including young adults)

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Perinatal mortality

Perinatal mortality 2014

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CountriesPerinatal deaths 1000+g per 1000 births: Total [Rate]
Austria2.9
Belgium (2013)3.8
Croatia4.2
Cyprus3.0
Czech Republic3.1
Denmark (2015)2.7
Estonia3.3
EU284.1
Finland2.7
Hungary4.2
Ireland (2013)4.6
Latvia4.8
Lithuania4.4
Luxembourg2.9
Malta5.7
NETHERLANDS (2013)3.8
Poland3.5
Portugal (2012)3.5
Romania6.6
Slovakia4.6
Slovenia2.2
Sweden (2012)3.2

12. Perinatal mortality
 

Definition

The number of early neonatal deaths after live birth plus fetal deaths in a given year, per 1000 live and stillbirths.

Rationale

A sensitive measure of health in the perinatal period. Also important indicator for quality of perinatal health care, and preventive care.

Relevant policy areas

  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • Health system performance, quality of care, efficiency of care, patient safety
  • Maternal and perinatal health
  • Child health (including young adults)

More information

Smoking-attributable deaths

This is a Work-in-progress indicator. Work-in-progress indicators are (nearly) ready for incorporation in regular international data collections, but not yet used in practice. There (nearly) is consensus on the indicator definition and calculation, and da

15. Smoking-attributable deaths


Definition

Mortality caused by tobacco smoking. Death rates from combined, selected causes of death which are related to smoking, as per 100,000 of the population.

Rationale

Smoking can cause many diseases which reduce both quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking is one of the best preventable health risk behaviours.

Relevant policy areas

  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • Health system performance, quality of care, efficiency of care, patient safety
  • Non-communicable  diseases  (NCDs),  chronic diseases
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Lifestyle,  health behaviour

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Alcohol-attributable deaths

This is a Work-in-progress indicator. Work-in-progress indicators are (nearly) ready for incorporation in regular international data collections, but not yet used in practice. There (nearly) is consensus on the indicator definition and calculation, and da

16. Alcohol-attributable deaths (AADs)


Definition

Mortality caused by alcohol consumption. Number of premature deaths that may be attributed to alcohol consumption in the population (Alcohol Atributable Deaths (AAD)) out of the total number of deaths*100)

Rationale

In all of the European regions, alcohol use has been identified as one of the major risk factors for burden of disease and injury with highest levels of alcohol-attributable burden in Russia and surrounding countries (see reference 1). Amenable to interventions.

Relevant policy areas

  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • Health system performance, Quality of care, Efficiency of care, patient safety
  • Non-Communicable diseases (NCD), chronic diseases
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Life style, health behaviour
  • Mental health
  • Child health (including young adults)

More information

Excess mortality by extreme temperatures

This section contains those indicator topics that are not ready yet for incorporation in international regular data collections (and thus for implementation) due to considerable methodological and/or data availability problems.

17. Excess mortality by extreme temperatures
 

Definition

To be developed: Daily number of observed deaths and death rates (all cause) in a region during a heat wave or a period of extreme winter cold in relation to the expected number of deaths and death rate for the same calendar day.

Rationale

Extreme temperatures can induce excess mortality in the population. Excess mortality affects vulnerable groups, particularly those who are old or ill. Important indicator in the frame of health effects of climate change. In some countries winter excess mortality is a problem and in others excess mortality by heat waves. Therefore both excess mortality by heat waves and winter excess mortality are included.

Relevant policy areas

  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • Environmental health

More information

Disease-specific mortality

Disease-specific mortality 2014

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CountriesAll causes of death (A00-Y89) excluding S00-T98: Total [Per 100,000 inhabitants]All causes of death (A00-Y89) excluding S00-T98: Men [Per 100,000 inhabitants]All causes of death (A00-Y89) excluding S00-T98: Women [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Certain infectious and parasitic diseases (A00-B99): Total [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Certain infectious and parasitic diseases (A00-B99): Men [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Certain infectious and parasitic diseases (A00-B99): Women [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Malignant neoplasms (C00-C97): Total [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Malignant neoplasms (C00-C97): Men [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Malignant neoplasms (C00-C97): Women [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F99): Total [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F99): Men [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F99): Women [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-I99): Total [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-I99): Men [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-I99): Women [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99): Total [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99): Men [Per 100,000 inhabitants]Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99): Women [Per 100,000 inhabitants]External causes of morbidity and mortality (V01-Y89): Total [Per 100,000 inhabitants]External causes of morbidity and mortality (V01-Y89): Men [Per 100,000 inhabitants]External causes of morbidity and mortality (V01-Y89): Women [Per 100,000 inhabitants]
Austria957.151182795.698.6510.976.87249.28320.71202.4118.9222.7514.8418.07492.71362.746.6368.9133.6851.9375.9132.78
Belgium970.631205.39799.6723.2328.0520.01252.61333.88195.9142.9143.8941.29281.89341.02238.1395.72136.0871.3361.984.8543.13
Bulgaria1646.452038.151351.156.168.564.18242.41332.75178.661.061.350.741131.021333.98976.9358.1485.2239.1840.7665.0619.56
Croatia1355.921716.981109.868.8811.716.82336.39474.29247.0133.6934.5431.24678.55783.46601.6459.74102.4537.7572.5999.4450.28
Cyprus980.11139.73845.2720.7522.3219.48200.39274.57140.3623.7617.6227.84352.13397.26312.4186.22105.1271.2643.0751.735.48
Czech Republic1237.321564.221007.8520.2425.4417.04284.55382.43219.7715.4317.7513.81615.18736.33527.2673.35108.8152.2161.1592.7735.66
Denmark1028.331242.87871.7918.8520.8917.45300.61363.1258.3166.6168.6261.97256.59324.4206.4115.71142.85101.0141.0456.727.37
Estonia1269.271805.54961.799.5811.547.53299.41466.68217.788.3514.064.27699.56909.98579.8543.7892.5621.6875.08130.9629.94
EU281003.061254.48817.9416.119.7313.48261.5349.11200.6338.3439.2236.39373.62444.8318.3478.25112.2658.1345.6766.5327.92
Finland994.741261.27803.255.917.025.32218.57283.46178.3247.5449.9943.77378.79489.3299.8334.4457.2121.2264.1196.4237.25
France829.861086.74645.0915.6420.212.65245.41339.86178.332.436.3928.43202.93260.32163.0351.9775.9937.8354.3478.6934.97
Germany1017.071260.22840.6820.7924.7417.93253.23328.42202.1443.7645.6840.13403.54478.79346.5267.9597.7650.4541.3559.1727.2
Greece966.641153.34805.9729.630.0928.77249.32344.73173.465.134.145.83381.41422.4340.36108.05130.9290.7929.3846.1814.21
Hungary1455.451872.81180.349.1610.498.12348.14478.7266.4739.3742.536.2761.52921.42654.0678.61118.8156.4663.32100.5335.98
Ireland981.071170.96833.9710.111.139.69288.29344.5249.0750.6846.8151.63309.91370.24258.31125.85157.27106.3639.9258.9522.33
Italy854.061079.29698.818.6622.9215.68246.55332.03187.2624.6624.1924.26310.14373.82265.7658.3389.2841.2433.0246.5222.11
Latvia1502.962112.281145.5714.5822.249.12299.33476.86211.9816.7320.1612.77882.71143.42729.0235.9271.217.7694.4165.5438.34
Lithuania1449.222049.461086.0523.3636.814.5276.22441.42188.774.365.053.61848.821089.14706.1542.1288.5119.15112.77198.9644.26
Luxembourg917.541191.23731.2813.5415.2711.94260.71356.45193.9847.260.9540.86296.93364.02247.6763.8284.2651.8254.4673.4138.11
Malta939.381146.17787.266.798.745.55233.53310177.3743.4339.6445.8372.42433.97326.496.6137.0371.1629.7848.9416.26
NETHERLANDS957.961146.49825.9321.9226.6118.84282.2356.6232.7175.8771.676.42271.73326.99231.4974.14103.4758.8645.7758.5235.31
Poland1241.041641.49966.015.98.024.31292.31405.892224.177.011.66591.39734.02491.7869.11109.6347.0260.7299.3827.3
Portugal991.41285.43783.7820.7327.5415.35242.14350.33166.7125.6129.3123.11305.76361.58263.71116.65166.9987.2444.9368.3626.33
Romania1531.081903.971245.3814.3119.89.58273.21381.81194.341.21.820.65951.31091.72842.9878.36117.6151.2953.0487.8222.19
Slovakia1353.431751.131085.849.3810.318.51324.05463.51239.0229.3933.2526.22654.55792.41559.8974.9118.1850.9472.37111.7840.52
Slovenia1018.631301.92821.98.4511.786.69299.91424.39223.719.7718.013451.26505.41401.8166.34103.9249.0165.8194.4740.71
Spain837.461078.41656.4613.6116.5211.23232.7337.04155.9438.6637.2938.35244.99292.56206.4791.66140.1961.2930.7743.9919.43
Sweden922.11104.73786.6621.7427.5617.92234.75282.37203.361.7956.7462.75338.32417.26278.8358.0773.8949.0550.4171.3833.03
United Kingdom971.171145.89837.9610.2111.219.43278.43341.11234.7180.1175.2381.64264.94327.62215.36130.86160.89112.1535.2148.0423.6

13. Disease-specific mortality


Definition

Deaths caused by specific diseases or disease groups per 100,000 inhabitants for the following ICD-10 codes:

Total (All Causes) All

All

Infectious & Parasitic Diseases

A00 - B99

Malignant Neoplasms

C00 - C97

Mental and Behavioural Disorders

F00 - F99

Diseases of the Circulatory System

I00 - I99

Diseases of the Respiratory System

J00 - J99

External Causes of Injury & Poisoning

V01 - Y89


Rationale

Data on causes of death provide information on mortality patterns and form a major element of public health information necessary for planning of prevention and health care, and for the evaluation of policies. 

Relevant policy areas

  • Health system performance, quality of care, efficiency of care
  • Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), chronic diseases
  • Health threats, communicable diseases
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Lifestyle, health behaviour
  • Mental health
  • Child health (including young adults)

More information

Health expectancy: Healthy Life Years (HLY)

Healthy life years 2015

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CountriesHealthy life years at birth: Men [Year]Healthy life years at birth: Women [Year]Healthy life years at 65: Men [Year]Healthy life years at 65: Women [Year]
Austria57.958.17.97.7
Belgium64.46411.211
Bulgaria61.5658.79.5
Croatia55.356.84.74.5
Cyprus63.163.48.47.3
Czech Republic62.463.788.6
Denmark60.457.61111.9
Estonia53.856.25.35.3
EU2862.663.39.49.4
Finland59.456.39.39
France62.664.69.810.7
Germany65.367.511.412.3
Greece63.964.17.97.5
Hungary58.260.15.95.9
Ireland66.667.911.412
Italy62.662.77.87.5
Latvia51.854.14.14
Lithuania54.158.855.5
Luxembourg63.760.610.78.7
Malta72.674.613.414
NETHERLANDS61.157.210.59.4
Poland60.163.27.68.4
Portugal58.25575.4
Romania5959.46.35.7
Slovakia54.855.14.13.8
Slovenia58.557.78.27.6
Spain63.964.19.58.9
Sweden7473.815.716.8
United Kingdom63.763.310.210.4

40. Health Expectancy: Healthy Life Years (HLY)


Definition

Expected remaining years lived from a particular age without long-term activity limitation. This is the Structural Indicator named ‘Healthy Life Years’ (HLY).

Rationale

Health Expectancies extend the concept of life expectancy to morbidity and disability in order to assess the quality of years lived. It is a summary measure of population health (SMPH) that takes into account both mortality and disability, providing more information on burden of poor health in the population than life expectancy alone. Monitoring time trend of life expectancy and healthy life years together allows assessing whether years of life gained are healthy years or not.

Relevant policy areas

  • Sustainable health care systems
  • Healthy ageing, ageing population
  • (Planning of) health care resources

More information

Health Expectancy, others

This is a Work-in-progress indicator. Work-in-progress indicators are (nearly) ready for incorporation in regular international data collections, but not yet used in practice. There (nearly) is consensus on the indicator definition and calculation, and da

41. Health Expectancy, others


Definition

Expected remaining years lived at a particular age a) in good perceived health and b) without self-reported chronic morbidity.

Relevant policy areas

  • Sustainable health care systems
  • Healthy ageing, ageing population
  • (Planning of) health care resources

Rationale

Health expectancies extend the concept of life expectancy to self perceived health, morbidity and disability in order to assess the quality of years lived. It is a composite indicator of health that takes into account both mortality data and data referring to health status, such as poor self-perceived health and chronic morbidity, providing more information on burden of diseases in the population than life expectancy alone. Monitoring time trend of life expectancy and healthy life years together allows assessing whether years of life gained are healthy years or not.

More information