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ECHI indicatorsHealth determinants

(Low) birth weight

Low birth weight 2014

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CountriesPercentage of live births weighing 2500 gram or less: Total [Percentage]
Austria6.6
Belgium (2013)7.1
Bulgaria9.4
Croatia5.4
Czech Republic8.0
Denmark (2015)5.0
Estonia4.6
EU287.1
Finland4.2
France (2013)7.2
Germany (2013)6.6
Greece (2012)9.8
Hungary8.9
Ireland (2013)5.6
Italy (2013)7.7
Latvia4.4
Lithuania4.5
Luxembourg6.6
Malta (2013)6.7
NETHERLANDS (2013)6.3
Poland5.9
Portugal (2013)8.7
Romania8.3
Slovakia7.8
Slovenia6.4
Spain8.2
Sweden4.6
United Kingdom7.0

28. Low birth weight


Definition

The proportion of live births of low birth weight per 100 live births in a given year.

Rationale

Important indicator for pregnancy conditions and perinatal care. Low birth weight is associated with health- problems later in life.

Relevant policy areas

  • Health system performance, quality of care, efficiency of care, patient safety
  • Maternal & perinatal health
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Child health (including young adults)

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Body mass index

Body mass index 2014

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CountriesBody mass index (obese): Total [Percentage]Body mass index (obese): Men [Percentage]Body mass index (obese): Women [Percentage]
Austria14.315.613.1
Belgium13.713.513.8
Bulgaria14.41513.8
Croatia1820.116.2
Cyprus13.915.512.4
Czech Republic18.719.318.2
Denmark14.413.615.2
Estonia19.718.320.8
EU2815.415.615.3
Finland17.818.317.3
France14.714.614.7
Germany16.416.716.1
Greece16.917.916
Hungary20.621.419.9
Ireland18.219.916.6
Italy10.51110.1
Latvia20.818.322.7
Lithuania16.613.419.2
Luxembourg15.116.313.9
Malta25.227.223.2
NETHERLANDS12.911.114.6
Poland16.718.115.5
Portugal16.114.817.3
Romania9.18.79.4
Slovakia15.915.616.1
Slovenia18.620.317
Spain16.216.515.8
Sweden13.412.913.9
United Kingdom19.819.420.2

42. Body mass index


Definition

Proportion of adult persons (18+) who are obese, i.e. whose body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m².

Rationale

Excessive body weight predisposes to various diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleep apnoea and osteoarthritis. Obesity is a growing public health problem. Effective interventions exist to prevent and treat obesity. Many of the risks diminish with weight loss.

Relevant policy areas

  • Healthy ageing, ageing population
  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Life style, health behaviour
  • Child health (including young adults)
  • (Planning of) health care resources
  • Health in All Policies (HiAP)

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Blood pressure

High blood pressure: self-reported prevalance 2014

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CountriesHigh blood pressure (self-reported prevalance): Total [Percentage]High blood pressure (self-reported prevalance): Men [Percentage]High blood pressure (self-reported prevalance): Women [Percentage]
Austria21.120.521.7
Belgium16.515.617.3
Bulgaria29.62633
Croatia24.622.326.7
Cyprus17.317.816.9
Czech Republic23.723.523.9
Denmark17.717.917.5
Estonia22.919.825.6
EU282120.221.7
Finland24.92623.9
France14.413.914.9
Germany28.529.227.8
Greece20.919.122.5
Hungary31.929.434.2
Ireland15.515.615.3
Italy20.619.821.4
Latvia29.422.834.8
Lithuania28.121.933.2
Luxembourg16.517.815.2
Malta21.421.221.6
NETHERLANDS16.81617.6
Poland23.120.725.2
Portugal25.321.628.6
Romania17.112.921.1
Slovakia25.822.529
Slovenia24.824.525
Spain18.718.319.1
Sweden16.215.117.3
United Kingdom16.416.815.9

43. Blood pressure


Definition

Proportion of individuals reporting to have been diagnosed with high blood pressure which occurred during the past 12 months.

Rationale

Strong indicators of the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes. Amenable to interventions. Small changes in the average blood pressure values of a population may be of considerable importance to public health.

Relevant policy areas

  • Healthy ageing, ageing population
  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Life style, health behaviour
  • (Planning of) health care resources
  • Health in All Policies (HiAP)

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Regular smokers

Regular smokers 2014

15 years and older

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CountriesRegular smokers: Total [Percentage]Regular smokers: Men [Percentage]Regular smokers: Women [Percentage]
Austria23.92622
Belgium17.219.115.3
Bulgaria27.335.419.9
Croatia24.528.820.5
Cyprus25.237.314
Czech Republic21.227.115.6
Denmark12.312.611.9
Estonia22.731.815
EU2818.421.815.1
Finland11.612.710.5
France20.522.918.3
Germany1516.413.6
Greece2733.321.3
Hungary25.831.620.7
Ireland12.712.912.6
Italy17.421.613.4
Latvia24.13614.5
Lithuania20.233.69.2
Luxembourg13.815.612
Malta18.921.416.5
NETHERLANDS17.218.915.6
Poland21.927.816.6
Portugal16.322.710.7
Romania19.832.28.3
Slovakia22.63015.6
Slovenia1820.615.6
Spain22.226.218.5
Sweden8.77.59.8
United Kingdom13.714.413.1

44. Regular smokers


Definition

Proportion of people ( ≥ 15 years) reporting to smoke cigarettes daily.

Rationale

Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of death and disease in our society. It is a major risk factor for diseases of the heart and blood vessels, chronic bronchitis and emphysema, cancers of the lung and other diseases. Passive smoking is also an important public health problem. Smoking is a modifiable lifestyle risk factor; effective tobacco control measures can reduce the occurrence of smoking in the population.

Relevant policy areas

  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Life style, health behaviour
  • Child health (including young adults)
  • (Planning of) health care resources
  • Health in All Policies (HiAP)

More information

Pregnant women smoking

This is a Work-in-progress indicator. Work-in-progress indicators are (nearly) ready for incorporation in regular international data collections, but not yet used in practice. There (nearly) is consensus on the indicator definition and calculation, and da

45. Pregnant women smoking


Definition

Percentage of women who smoke during pregnancy.

Rationale

Smoking during pregnancy is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes including spontaneous abortion early in pregnancy, growth restriction, preterm birth and perinatal death. The indicator can be used as an indicator of prenatal care and prevention, if data is available on percent of pregnant women quitting smoking during the 1st trimester of pregnancy. Amenable to intervention.

Relevant policy areas

  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • Health system performance, quality of care, efficiency of care, patient safety
  • Maternal & perinatal health
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Life style, health behaviour

More information

Total alcohol consumption

Total alcohol consumption 2014

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CountriesPure alcohol consumption, litres per capita, age 15+: Total [Litres]
Austria12.3
Belgium12.6
Bulgaria12.0
Croatia12.1
Cyprus (2013)9.0
Czech Republic12.7
Denmark9.6
Estonia (2011)11.6
EU2810.2
Finland8.8
France11.5
Germany11.0
Greece7.5
Hungary (2013)10.9
Ireland10.8
Italy7.6
Latvia (2013)10.4
Lithuania15.2
Luxembourg11.1
Malta8.5
NETHERLANDS (2013)8.7
Poland10.7
Portugal9.9
Romania (2013)9.6
Slovakia10.6
Slovenia10.5
Spain (2013)9.3
Sweden7.3
United Kingdom (2015)10.7

46. Total alcohol consumption


Definition

Alcohol consumption among individuals aged 15+, expressed in litres of pure ethanol consumed per person per year.

Rationale

Harmful use of alcohol is related to many diseases and health conditions, including chronic diseases such as alcohol dependence, cancer and liver cirrhosis, and acute health problems such as injuries. The level of per capita consumption of alcohol across the population aged 15 years and older is one of the key indicators for monitoring the magnitude of alcohol consumption in the population and likely trends in alcohol-related problems (= rationale from WHO indicator compendium; see references). Reducing alcohol related harm is one of the major policy goals of the European Commission.

Relevant policy areas

  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Life style, health behaviour
  • Child health (including young adults)
  • (Planning of) health care resources
  • Health in All Policies (HiAP)

More information

Hazardous alcohol consumption

No data available yet

47. Hazardous alcohol consumption 


Definition

Proportion of individuals reporting to have had an average rate of consumption of more than 20 grams pure alcohol daily for women and more than 40 grams daily for men.

Rationale

Alcohol consumption is an important determinant of health and welfare. Overall, there are causal relationships between alcohol consumption and over 60 types of disease and injury. It is also amenable to interventions. Alcohol related health problems usually occur with increasing alcohol consumption. Health damages can be caused by a single occasion of heavy drinking – i.e. due to accidents, drunk driving, violence (as perpetrator or as victim), unprotected sexual exposure, etc. – or can be linked to regular heavy drinking –

i.e. liver cirrhosis, irreversible neurological damage, possible increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and for certain cancers, exacerbation of pre-existing difficulties such as depression and family problems, loss of employment, etc. These direct and indirect health consequences of drinking lead to consider alcohol as one of the three leading contributors to preventable death.

Relevant policy areas

  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Life style, health behaviour
  • Child health (including young adults)
  • (Planning of) health care resources
  • Health in All Policies (HiAP)

More information

 

Use of illicit drugs

Nodata available jet

48. Use of illicit drugs


Definition

Prevalence of use of specific illicit psychoactive drugs.

Relevant policy areas

  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Life style, health behaviour
  • Mental health
  • Child health (including young adults)
  • Health in All Policies (HiAP)

Rationale

  • Illicit use of drugs can be a determinant for and a consequence of health and social problems. Illicit drug use correlates with other health and social problems, especially for youth.
  • Prevalence estimates help to identify needs, plan and evaluate interventions and policies.

More information

Consumption of fruit

Consumption of fruit 2014

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CountriesConsumption of Fruit (at least once a day): Total [Percentage]Consumption of Fruit (at least once a day): Men [Percentage]Consumption of Fruit (at least once a day): Women [Percentage]
Austria5645.266.2
Belgium5448.259.4
Bulgaria35.43238.4
Croatia58.153.662.1
Cyprus58.153.662.2
Czech Republic46.836.956
Denmark5343.662.2
Estonia52.244.258.9
EU2855.749.361.5
Finland4433.253.7
France55.148.561.2
Germany47.338.755.6
Greece5550.659
Hungary59.252.964.7
Ireland53.848.159.2
Italy70.967.374.1
Latvia39.832.445.5
Lithuania47.942.152.8
Luxembourg49.842.656.9
Malta57.653.261.9
NETHERLANDS4134.547.3
Poland58.552.363.9
Portugal70.966.874.5
Romania28.825.731.8
Slovakia47.440.454
Slovenia60.752.468.7
Spain66.762.470.8
Sweden46.83855.5
United Kingdom62.856.967.9

49. Consumption of fruit


Definition

Proportion of people reporting to eat fruits (excluding juice) at least once a day. 

Rationale

Important health promoting food item. The consumption of fruits and vegetables is a good proxy for a healthy diet. Fruits and vegetables are a dietary protective factor for tobacco related and several other cancers as well as for cardiovascular disease. Use declining in many countries. Amenable to interventions.

Relevant policy areas

  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Life style, health behaviour
  • Health in All Policies (HiAP)

More information

Consumption of vegetables

Consumption of vegetables 2014

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CountriesConsumption of Vegetables (at least once a day): Total [Percentage]Consumption of Vegetables (at least once a day): Men [Percentage]Consumption of Vegetables (at least once a day): Women [Percentage]
Austria47.639.555.3
Belgium78.575.181.6
Bulgaria38.436.240.4
Croatia62.459.465.2
Cyprus52.74956
Czech Republic41.434.248.1
Denmark44.134.353.6
Estonia54.849.159.5
EU2850.14455.7
Finland45.436.753.1
France57.651.463.3
Germany34.125.342.5
Greece62.256.767.1
Hungary46.341.950.2
Ireland54.449.159.4
Italy61.957.266
Latvia42.637.446.8
Lithuania54.549.958.3
Luxembourg52.243.460.8
Malta4033.846.1
NETHERLANDS31.327.635
Poland55.75159.6
Portugal55.248.960.7
Romania29.627.731.4
Slovakia4437.849.8
Slovenia60.955.266.4
Spain44.63950
Sweden52.142.361.7
United Kingdom65.560.370

50. Consumption of vegetables


Definition

Proportion of people reporting to eat vegetables (excluding potatoes and juice) at least once a day.

Rationale

Important health promoting food item. The consumption of fruits and vegetables is a good proxy for a healthy diet. Fruits and vegetables are a dietary protective factor for tobacco related and several other cancers as well as for cardiovascular disease. Use declining in many countries. Amenable to interventions.

Relevant policy areas

  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Life style, health behaviour
  • Health in All Policies (HiAP)

More information

Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding 2014

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CountriesPercentage of infants breastfed at age 3 months: Total [Rate]Percentage of infants breastfed at age 6 months: Total [Percentage]
Austria72.065.0
Belgium57.031.0
Bulgaria43.315.0
Croatia46.912.3
Czech Republic63.738.5
Denmark70.048.0
Estonia65.834.9
Finland76.058.0
France33.018.0
Germany51.620.6
Greece29.06.0
Hungary96.095.7
Italy59.240.4
Latvia78.157.0
Lithuania61.444.9
Luxembourg45.041.2
Malta19.537.7
NETHERLANDS52.235.3
Poland25.113.6
Portugal71.653.9
Romania64.834.8
Slovakia73.953.4
Slovenia50.020.0
Spain66.547.0
Sweden80.463.2
United Kingdom42.034.0

51. Breastfeeding


Definition

Percentage of infants breastfed at 3 months of age and at 6 months of age.

Rationale

Breastfeeding is an important determinant of the health of both mother and child and in terms of e.g. nutrition and infections (child), and weight gain and risk for breast cancer (mother).

Relevant policy areas

  • Maternal and perinatal health
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Life style, health behaviour
  • Child health (including young adults)

More information

Physical activity

Physical activity 2008

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CountriesPhysical activity: Total [Percentage]Physical activity: Men [Percentage]Physical activity: Women [Percentage]
Austria32.739.526.2
Bulgaria48.956.841.7
Cyprus40.341.839
Czech Republic63.172.154.7
Greece56.652.260.8
Hungary59.566.553.4
Latvia63.671.157.5
Malta22.828.218.2
Poland55.260.251.2
Slovakia55.965.147.5
Spain46.747.546.1

52. Physical activity


Definition

Proportion of individuals reporting to perform a certain period of time of health enhancing physical activity on an average day/at least X times per week (precise operationalization to be formulated).

Rationale

It has been largely recognised that physical activity has a substantial impact on health status and must be considered as one of the major behaviours to be promoted in the field of public health. Relative physical inactivity, usually together with unhealthy food habits, is associated with the development of many of the major non-communicable diseases in society, such as CVD, some cancers, obesity, diabetes and osteoporosis. 

Relevant policy areas

  • Healthy ageing, ageing population
  • Health inequalities (including accessibility of care)
  • (Preventable) Burden of Disease (BoD)
  • Preventable health risks
  • Life style, health behaviour
  • Health in All Policies (HiAP)

More information